On January 24th and 25th, attorneys Bruce Nathan, Esq., Lowenstein Sandler PC,
and Wanda Borges, Esq., Borges & Associates LLC, hosted the first of three
sessions in NACM’s 2008 Legal Workshop series. The two attorneys are familiar
faces in the association’s educational programs, and teamed up to speak in-depth
about credit applications and guaranties and the information that should and
should not be included in them.
The two-day session provided a wealth of information and advice on topics
ranging from references, stoppage of delivery, reclamation, compliance with
federal law and the "Battle of the Forms" to navigating antitrust violations,
and oft overlooked protections.
First and foremost, both agreed that every credit application should include
language, in bold, that verifies that the grantor adheres to the provisions of
the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA) and that there must be some reference to
the grantor’s standard terms and conditions, either by including them in the
credit application or noting that they are posted on the creditor’s website.
"Your terms and conditions have to be prevalent," said Borges. "If the first
time your customer sees them is on the back of an invoice, you’ve got a problem.
More and more companies are putting the data on their website. If you’re going
to put your terms and conditions on your website, you have to make them readily
Under Article II of the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC), the failings of which
took centerstage, if the first time a customer sees terms and conditions is on
an invoice, it won’t always serve as confirmation or agreement to those
"The thing I love about Article II is that everybody is right," said Nathan.
"There are court cases that say the invoice serves as confirmation of terms and
conditions, there are others that disagree. Do something such as posting them on
a website to lock in the terms and conditions."
In terms and conditions, grantors want to make sure that the laws of the
state where they are headquartered are recognized to rule in any legal
proceedings. The two also suggested that interest rate charges and the
reimbursement of at least a portion, such as 25%, or all legal fees are included
in the terms and conditions or on the credit application as well. Credit
executives need to be wary though that if they do include interest charges on
invoices they must make their best effort to collect on them. If they are only
collecting the charges from certain customers and not all, they may find
themselves facing antitrust violations of the Robinson-Patman Act.
Common practices, such as asking for the social security numbers and home
addresses of board members, officers and other executives may not always end in
results, as most credit executives will know. The new privacy laws provide
individuals protection against having to submit these on a credit application,
and denying credit because an application is without these pieces of information
may lead to violations. Though the majority of attendees of the workshop
included sections on their applications asking for the social security numbers,
they all agreed that it was irregular for those to be given.
Other basic measures Nathan and Borges discussed were the importance of
verifying a company’s legal name before granting credit, as well as verifying
that the individual signing the application or a personal guaranty has the
authority to do so. They suggested checking the Secretary of State records and
website, and touted a subscription with court document websites such as PACER as
The Legal Workshops will continue with Credit Enhancements, on March
Matthew Carr, NACM staff writer